In recent years, Mozambique has undertaken significant efforts to address energy access gaps, with electrification rates increasing from 5% in 2001 to 26% in 2016. The country’s National Electrification Strategy sets out to achieve universal access to electricity by 2030.
More than 70% of the country’s 28.8 million inhabitants still lack access to electricity. In rural areas, access gaps are even more pronounced, with only 5.7% of the population using electricity for lighting. In the absence of clean energy sources, 85% of domestic energy needs are addressed through the use of biomass from forest resources, predominantly for cooking (95% in rural areas). This raises significant challenges in terms of public health and forest resource depletion. Furthermore, many rural households are reliant on kerosene and batteries for lighting and electricity, at a significant cost in a country where 70% of the population lives on less than USD 1.90 per day (2016).
Thus, ensuring access to clean, reliable, and affordable energy is a pressing challenge for Mozambique. The potential of community-led, off-grid energy access programs remains to be investigated in a country that still faces significant energy access gaps in both urban and rural areas.
You can find out more about Mozambique's energy situation in our open access country report which you can dowload below.